Skip to main content

Table 1 Studies comparing spray dried plasma (SDP) to antibiotics or other alternative substances

From: Spray dried plasma as an alternative to antibiotics in piglet feeds, mode of action and biosafety

Age of piglets (days) Challenge SDP dose (g/kg) Observations for SDP vs. Controla Reference Product(s) and dose (g/kg) Observations for SDP vs. Reference Productb Reference
21 Uncleaned nursery 30 No differences observed Egg yolk antibodies (2) No differences observed [36]
60 ↑Weight gain ↑Weight gain
21 None 50 ↑Weight gain; ↑Gain:Feed ratio Colistin (0.12) + Lincomycin (0.044) + Spectinomycin (0.044) No differences observed [32]
18 None 60 ↑Weight gain; ↑Feed intake Copper sulfate (0.2) No differences observed [38]
21 E. coli K99 60 ↑Weight Gain Colistin (0.3) No differences observed [30]
Calcium formate (18) ↑Weight gain; ↑Feed intake
21 E. coli K99 60 No differences observed Colistin (0.3) ↑Villi height; ↑E. coli [30]
Calcium formate (18) ↑Villi height
20 None 60 ↑Gain:Feed ratio; ↓Monocytes; ↓Macrophages in Peyer’s patches; ↓Macrophages, B Lymphocytes and γδ + T cells in lymph nodes; ↓Lymphocyte and cell density in lamina propria Carvacrol (0.015) + Cinnamaldehyde (0.009) + Capsicum oleoresin (0.006) ↓Macrophages in Peyer’s patches; ↓Macrophages and γδ + T cells in lymph nodes; ↓Lymphocyte and cell density in lamina propria [37]
21 E. coli K99 60 ↑Weight gain; ↑Gain:Feed ratio Colistin (0.3) No differences observed [31]
26 None 40 ↑Weight gain; ↑Feed intake; ↑Gain:Feed ratio Avilamycine (0.04) ↑Weight gain; ↑Feed intake; ↑Gain:Feed ratio [29]
21 E. coli K88 60 ↑Feed intake; ↑Weight gain; ↓Specific K88 IgA; ↑Crypt depth; ↓IL-8; ↓TNF-α Colistin (0.25) + Amoxycycline (0.5) ↑Feed intake; ↑Weight gain; ↑Crypt depth; ↓IL-8; ↓TNF-α; ↓IFN-γ [23]
10 E. coli K88 50 ↑Weight gain; ↓Scours; ↓Mortality; ↑Villi height E. coli K88 specific egg yolk antibodies (5) ↓Villi height [35]
100 ↑ Weight gain; ↓Scours; ↓Mortality; ↑Villi height; ↓Plasma urea N ↓Mortality; ↓Villi height
10 E. coli K88 100 ↓Plasma urea N; ↓Scours; ↓Mortality; ↓E. coli K88 shedding; ↑Villi height; ↑Villi:Crypt ratio Carbadox (0.055) No differences observed [33]
E. coli K88 specific egg yolk antibodies (5) No differences observed
Zinc oxide (2.88) ↑Villi height; ↑Villi:Crypt ratio
Fumaric acid (0.02) No differences observed
24 E. coli K99 70 ↑Weight gain; ↑Gain:Feed ratio; ↑Lactobacilli Colistin (0.3) ↑E. coli [28]
21 None 50 ↑Weight gain; ↑Gain:Feed ratio Colistin (0.15) No differences observed [11]
22 & 32 None 50 ↑Gain:Feed ratio Colistin (0.15) No differences observed [11]
30 None 50 ↑Weight gain; ↑Feed intake Chlortetracycline (0.11) + Sulfamethazine (0.11) + Penicillin (0.055) + Copper sulfate (0.25) No differences observed [12]
  1. aPerformance and health observations in studies comparing the effects of feeding spray dried plasma (SDP) versus a control diet without antimicrobial products
  2. bPerformance and health observations in studies comparing the effects of feeding spray dried plasma (SDP) versus the use of antibiotics or other alternative substances