Skip to main content

Table 1 Ethogram for direct observations (scan sampling) at 24 h pre- and post- vaccination (adapted from the WQ protocol for sows [18])

From: Effect of the needle-free “intra dermal application of liquids” vaccination on the welfare of pregnant sows

Behavioural Category Definition
Active behaviour
 Social negative behaviour Aggressive behaviour, including biting or any social behaviour with a fearful or aggressive response from the disturbed animal
 Positive social behaviour Sniffing, nosing, licking and moving gently away from the animal without an aggressive or flight reaction from this individual
 Drinking Mouth on water trough
 Exploring Sniffing, nosing, licking or chewing all features of the pen or paddock and manipulation of enrichment material
 Other active behaviours All other active behaviours (air sniffing, gazing, walking etc.)
Non-Active behaviour
 Resting Sleeping (lying down with the eyes shut)