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Table 1 Ethogram for direct observations (scan sampling) at 24 h pre- and post- vaccination (adapted from the WQ protocol for sows [18])

From: Effect of the needle-free “intra dermal application of liquids” vaccination on the welfare of pregnant sows

Behavioural Category


Active behaviour

 Social negative behaviour

Aggressive behaviour, including biting or any social behaviour with a fearful or aggressive response from the disturbed animal

 Positive social behaviour

Sniffing, nosing, licking and moving gently away from the animal without an aggressive or flight reaction from this individual


Mouth on water trough


Sniffing, nosing, licking or chewing all features of the pen or paddock and manipulation of enrichment material

 Other active behaviours

All other active behaviours (air sniffing, gazing, walking etc.)

Non-Active behaviour


Sleeping (lying down with the eyes shut)