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Table 3 Means, SD and CV of salivary cortisol, Alpha-Amylase and, Chromogranin-A for the IDAL and NEEDLE group immediately before and after (+25 min) vaccination

From: Effect of the needle-free “intra dermal application of liquids” vaccination on the welfare of pregnant sows

  Mean ± SD (CV) Effects (P)
IDAL NEEDLE Treatment Baseline (before)
Cortisol (μg/dL) Before 0.47 ± 0.18 (38%) 0.45 ± 0.22 (51%)   
After 0.50 ± 0.21 (42%) 0.42 ± 0.11 (27%) 0.5771 0.0062
α-amylase (UI/L) Before 4908 ± 7797 (159%) 5053 ± 6501 (128%)   
After 3381 ± 5684 (168%) 2877 ± 3167 (110%) 0.7684 0.0383
Chromogranin-A Before 0.23 ± 0.23 (100%) 0.21 ± 0.15 (71%)   
(μg/mL) After 0.43 ± 0.44 (102%) 0.88 ± 1.01 (126%) 0.0743 0.0001