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Table 5 In vitro embryo development and blastocyst quality of fresh and vitrified oocytes

From: An efficiency comparison of different in vitro fertilization methods: IVF, ICSI, and PICSI for embryo development to the blastocyst stage from vitrified porcine immature oocytes

Treatment Total
n
Cleavage (%) Blastocyst (%) Viable cells in blastocysts % Total no. of nuclei (means ± S.D.)
IVF
 Control (DO-GC) 100 73 (73 ± 3.4)a 15 (15 ± 1.2)a 82 ± 3a 50 ± 0.6a
 Vitrification 210 142 (68 ± 2)a 30 (14 ± 1.8)a 70 ± 5b 46 ± 3a
ICSI
 Control (DO-GC) 74 33 (45 ± 2)b 9 (12 ± 0.3)a 100c 44 ± 0.9b
 Vitrification 113 45 (40 ± 9)b 10 (9 ± 0.2)b 42 ± 5d 41 ± 2b
PICSI
 Control (DO-GC) 60 38 (63 ± 2)a 18 (30 ± 1.5)c 100c 50 ± 2.5a
 Vitrification 158 99 (63 ± 3.5)a 39 (25 ± 3)c 100c 54 ± 5a
  1. DO-GC Denuded oocytes cultured with granulosa cells, n number of embryos examined
  2. Cell viability was considered as the percentage of viable cells in blastocysts
  3. Percentage data are presented as mean ± SD values
  4. Cleavage = number of zygotes cleaved per total cultivated
  5. Blastocyst = number of blastocysts per total cultivated
  6. a,b,c,dValues in the same column with different letters are significantly different (P < 0.05)