Skip to main content


Table 2 Clinical scoring systems for the classification of shoulder ulcers in sows

From: Scoring shoulder ulcers in breeding sows – is a distinction between substantial and insubstantial animal welfare-related lesions possible on clinical examination?

Stage Lund 2006a Zurbrigg 2006 Baustad, Frederiksen 2006 Lund 2003, Jensen 2009b Bonde 2004 Welfare Quality® 2009 Stage Grading system in Denmarkc
0 No skin lesion No lesion/scarring Normal skin or fresh fighting wounds Intact skin, no ulceration 0 No lesion or lesion < 2 cm
1 Lesion limited to epidermis, moderate scab No current lesion but previous scarring Ulcer with skin merely affected Ulcer limited to epidermis (necrotic or sloughed), covered with a scab No lesion No lesion 1 Small lesion 2–5 cm in diameter
2 Lesion involves dermis; extensive scab; little fibrosis/granulation Skin reddening Ulcer penetrating the skin Ulcer including dermis; sometimes scab; bordering granulation tissue/fibrosis Scratches Old lesion, healing wound, reddening
3 Lesion penetrates to subcutis; intense granulation Broken skin < 2.3 cm Ulcer extending to subcutis; granulation tissue possible Ulcer including subcutis, sometimes scab; heavy formation of fibrosis/granulation tissue Wounds Lesion/open wound 2 Lesion > 5 cm; Thickened wound perimeter
4 Ulcer extending to bone; periosteal bony proliferation Broken skin ≥2.3 cm Ulcers with exposure of the scapula Ulcer with exposed bone, proliferation of osseous tissue
  1. aModified by Jensen and Svendsen 2006
  2. bCited by Herskin 2011
  3. cNielsen personal correspondence