Skip to main content

Table 1 Variables and variable categories used in the construction of the final multiple correspondence analysis (MCA)

From: Structural characterization of piglet producing farms and their sow removal patterns in Finland

Variable code Description (“category”)
Type Type of production including the breeding and farrowing of sows and thereafter either selling the pigs as feeders or raising pigs to their slaughter weight (“far-feed” = farrow-to-feeder, “far-fin” = farrow-to-finish)
Herdsize Number of sows based on the 25th and 75th sample percentiles (“Herd<103”, “Herd103–635”, “Herd >635”)
Sows/caretaker Sows per caretaker-ratio as the number of sows divided by the number of caretakers based on the 25th and 75th sample percentiles (“Sows/caretaker <58”, “Sows/caretaker =58–147”, “Sows/caretaker>147”)
BR_size Number of sows in the same room in the breeding unit (“BR_size<20”, “BR_size20–50”, “BR_size >50”, “BR_sizeall” = all sows in the same room)
GE_size Number of sows in the same room in the gestation unit based on the 25th and 75th sample percentiles (“GE_size<50”, “GE_size50–151”, “GE_size>151”)
GE_group Number of sows in the same group in the gestation unit based on the 50th sample percentile (“GE_group<11”, “GE_group>10”)
GE_area Measured area (m2) divided by the number of sows in the gestation unit based on the 50th and 75th sample percentiles (“GE_area < 3”, “GE_area3–3.7”, “GE_area > 3.7”)
FAR_pen Measured farrowing pen size (m2) categorized based on the 75th sample percentiles (“FAR< 5.26”, “FAR> 5.26”)
BR_GE_comb Housing of the weaned and gestating sows in the same room (“no”, “yes”)
BR_type Type of the feeding system in the breeding unit (“stall_L” = locked stalls,“trough” = pen with trough feeding)
GE_type Housing in the gestation unit (“loose” = group housing with electronic transponders, “pen” = pen with trough feeding, “pen_stall” = pen with feeding stalls, “pen_stallL” = pen with lockable feeding stalls)
FAR_ind Frequency of farrowing induction according to the farmer (“IND_never”, “IND_sometimes”, “IND_always”)
FAR_OX Frequency of farrowings where oxytocin is used after the onset of parturition out of 10 farrowings according to the farmer (“OX_0–3/10”, “OX_4–7/10”, “OX_ > 7/10”)
FAR_AIAO All in all out practice in the farrowing unit (“no”, “yes”)
BR_floor Flooring in the breeding unit (“all solid”, “partly_slatted”)
GE_floor Flooring in the gestation unit (“ > 20% slatted”, “< 20% slatted”)
FAR_floor Flooring in the farrowing pen for the sow (“solid”, “partly slatted”, “all slatted”)
BR_m
GE_m
Manure management (“slurry”, “dry/mix” = dry or a combination of dry manure management and slurry)
BR_bed
GE_bed
FAR_bed
Material added to the pens to absorb liquids and scored according to (1) the amount and (2) the dryness of the material (“inadqt” = inadequate, i.e. the bedding material, if at all present, is wet, “some” = mostly dry or almost dry and there is enough to form small piles, “a lot” = mostly dry and there is enough to form large piles)
GE_root
FAR_root
Enrichment material given to the sows to facilitate manipulative beviour including both bedding-type materials such as straw, hay, peat or newspaper and/or solid objects, such as chains or rope. (“inadqt” = inadequate, i.e. not enough bedding-type material to form small piles, “some” = not enough bedding-type material or solid objects for all sows to manipulate at the same time, “a lot” = enough bedding-type material to allow all sows the possibility to manipulate the material or the objects simultaneously or bedding material scored as “a lot” and considered suitable also for manipulative behaviour (including materials such as peat, straw or sawdust))
FAR_nest Frequency and amount of nesting material use in the farrowing pen according to the farmer (“inadqt” = inadequate, “some”, “a lot”)
BR_
GE_
FAR_
Approximation of the proportion of the lying surface that is wet with old faeces (“cleaner” ≤10% dirty, “dirtier” > 10% dirty)