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Table 1 Risk factors for shoulder ulcers in sows (modified from Rioja-Lang [2])

From: How effective are clinical pre-farrowing risk assessment and the use of soft rubber mats in preventing shoulder ulcers in at-risk sows?

Animal-related risk factors Environment-related risk factors
Body Condition Score (BCS) Flooring type
Number of litters (parity) Pen location
Health status Temperature
Lameness Humidity
Previous shoulder ulcer history Type of sow housing
Weaning weight of litter Friction properties of the floor
Length of lactation period  
Sow behaviour  
Breed  
Genetics