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Table 1 Types of vaccines used in pigs

From: Future perspectives on swine viral vaccines: where are we headed?

Main vaccine category Subtypes
Whole pathogen • Attenuated-live
• Inactivated (killed)
• Chimeric (attenuated-live or inactivated)
Subunit or vector system baseda • Prokaryotic (unicellular organisms without a distinct nucleus)
Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis
• Eukaryotic (unicellular or multicellular organisms with an enveloped nucleus)
Yeast, mammalian cells, baculovirus expression in insect cells, plants, transgenic animals
• Live mammalian virus vectors (replicating or replication deficient)
Nucleic acid based • DNA plasmid(s)
• mRNA
  1. aVirus-like particles (VLPs) are often produced