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Table 2 Simplified advantages and disadvantages of traditionally used, widely available viral attenuated-live and inactivated vaccine types in pigs

From: Future perspectives on swine viral vaccines: where are we headed?

  Attenuated-live Inactivated
Administration routes (IM), oral, intranasal, intradermal IM, intradermal
Adjuvant None Required
Number of doses One dose Often two doses
Humoral immunity IgG IgG
Secretory immunity IgA
Cellular immunity Yes
Long-term immunity Yes
Reversion to virulence or recombination Yes Not possible
Storage Heat-labilea Stableb
Transmission among pigs Yes No
Production cost Low (involves only culture, bottling and lyophilization or freezing) High (requires a high antigen content, addition of adjuvant and other excipients)
Time until a vaccine is available Months to years Months
  1. aNeeds to be stored at −80 °C or lyophilized. Cannot be stored once opened
  2. bStorage at room temperature or at + 4 °C (never frozen) for longer periods; can be used for some time after opening a bottle. Phase separation of the aqueous and oil phases in the vaccine formulation may be observed in some vaccines, which can be corrected by vigorous shaking of the vaccine container