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Table 4 Overview of different vaccine administration routes. The subcutaneous route, as it is not commonly used, is not included

From: Future perspectives on swine viral vaccines: where are we headed?

Route Device Immunity Restraint of pigs Average volume Stress on pig Pathogen transmission Comments
Intramuscular Needle Systemic Yes 1–2 ml Yes Yes Risk of needle breakage and introduction of other infections through needle puncture is high. In addition, this method is labour intensive.
Intradermal Needle or needle free device Systemic Yes 0.5 ml Yes Only if a needle is used Special devices and training may be needed initially.
Intranasal Syringe with or without adaptor Mucosal Yes 0.5-2 ml Yes
Minimal Perhaps difficult in breeding animals; localized or mucosal immunity may be a possible benefit in vaccination against respiratory viruses.
Oral Syringe, feed or water Mucosal No Not applicable No No Attenuated virus vaccines are needed. Pigs need to have access to the feed/water and need to be willing to eat or drink at vaccination. Water quality and feed ingredients may interfere.