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Table 1 Distribution of alternative measures in the participating herds (n = 68) and median compliance percentage per category

From: Effectiveness of alternative measures to reduce antimicrobial usage in pig production in four European countries

General categories for improvement (number of farms)Options for improvement (number of included measures)aMedian compliance percentage in general category (Min-Max)
External biosecurity (n = 9)Purchasing policy/gilts acclimatisation (n = 8)73 (20–100)
Removing of animal carcasses (n = 2) 
Vermin control (n = 1) 
Internal biosecurity (n = 20)Suckling period management (n = 9)75 (0–100)
Farm compartmentalising, working lines (n = 6) 
Cleaning and disinfection (n = 6) 
Vaccination scheme (n = 30)Altering of existing vaccination protocols (n = 5)88 (0–100)
Implementation of a new vaccination (n = 29) 
Feed or water quality or composition (n = 45)Feed additives zinc/metal (n = 18)87 (0–100)
Feed scheme revision (n = 10) 
Feed and water acidification (n = 12) 
Cleaning and disinfection of water pipes (n = 7) 
Feed additives phytotherapy and other additives (n = 14) 
Feed quality improvement (e.g. change in fat, protein or fibre content) (n = 5) 
Feed additives pre- and probiotics (n = 4) 
Water quality control (n = 3) 
Pig health care (n = 21)Increased diagnostics (n = 7)89 (0–100)
Alternative treatments protocols in case of symptoms (e.g. with anti-inflammatory products or prostaglandins) (n = 5) 
Revision of deworming scheme (n = 4) 
Stopping surgical castration (n = 3) 
Hospital pens put in place (n = 3) 
Euthanasia of runt suckling piglets (n = 1) 
Pig stable climate and other zootechnical measures (n = 14)Climate adjustments (n = 7)100 (20–100)
Change of genetics (n = 2) 
Animal transfer adjusted (avoidance of re-mixing of piglets or having pens with heterogeneous pigs (n = 4) 
Building renovations (n = 3) 
Reduced pig density (n = 2) 
Farrowing processed slowed down (n = 2) 
  1. aThe number of included options is higher than the number of participating farms, because farmers and herd veterinarians decided to implement one or multiple options from one or several categories