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Table 4 Biosecurity scores (Biocheck.UGent™) for the different categories of internal and external biosecurity on 18 intensive Spanish swine farms

From: Antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. is influenced by production system, antimicrobial use, and biosecurity measures on Spanish pig farms

   Mean SD Median Min Max
aInternal biosecurity score   64.6 13.6 66 40 86
  Disease management 80.0 21.7 80.0 20 100
  cFarrowing and suckling period 64.2 12.1 64.0 50 86
  cNursery unit 58.4 11.5 50.0 50 71
  Fattening unit 72.6 21.0 79.0 21 100
  Measures between compartments and the use of equipment 45.7 20.0 46.5 0 71
  Cleaning and disinfection 74.7 21.5 75.0 40 100
aExternal biosecurity score   73.7 9.5 74.0 60 98
  Purchase of animals and semen 91.7 9.5 96 68 100
  Transport of animals, removal of manure and dead of animals 80.2 11.4 79.0 59 100
  Feed, water and equipment supply 56.3 17.8 53.0 30 100
  Personnel and visitors 63.1 21.7 59.0 29 100
  Vermin and bird control 72.8 27.2 80.0 10 100
  Environment and region 57.2 28.9 65.0 0 100
bTotal biosecurity score   69.2 10.1 67.5 53 92
  1. aInternal and external biosecurity scores are determined by the weighted average of their subcategories. The score for each subcategory is given in a rank from 0 (worst scenario) to 100 (best scenario)
  2. bTotal biosecurity score is the result of the average of internal and external biosecurity scores
  3. cOnly six farrow-to-finish intensive farms were included in the study
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