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Table 2 Clinical signs used to calculate African swine fever clinical sign scores. The list was generated based on the protocol published by Galindo-Cardiel et al. [18] with minor modifications.

From: Pathogenicity of an African swine fever virus strain isolated in Vietnam and alternative diagnostic specimens for early detection of viral infection

Clinical signs Scores (0: normal, 1: mild, 2: moderate, and 3: severe)
Fever 0: < 39.5 °C
1: 39.5–40.5 °C
2: 40.6–41.0 °C
3: > 41.0 °C
Behavior 0: Normal
1: Decreased activity, mild to moderate clumsiness
2: Decreased external stimuli response
3: Markedly decreased or lack of external stimuli response, immobile, prostration
Skin 0: Normal
1: Body cyanotic areas (< 10%); minimal multifocal cutaneous necrosis and/or hemorrhages
2: Body cyanotic areas (11-25%); mild to moderate multifocal cutaneous necrosis and/or hemorrhages
3: Body cyanotic areas (> 25%); moderate to marked multifocal cutaneous necrosis and/or hemorrhages
Digestive system 0: Normal
1: Feces around the anus (mild diarrhea)
2: Feces covering posterior gluteus (moderate diarrhea)
3: Feces covering posterior gluteus with blood or extensive mucus (severe bloody diarrhea)
Respiratory system 0: Normal
1: Mild dyspnea (labored respiration)
2: Moderate dyspnea or cough
3: Marked dyspnea or severe labored respiration
Body condition 0: Normal, full stomach
1: Empty stomach, sunken flanks
2: Empty stomach, sunken flanks, loss of muscle mass
3: Emaciated
Total From 0 to 18 (over than three scores considered as the pigs showing clinical signs)