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Table 2 Chronological history of the Salmonella situation at the farm. Presented are the date, the subject and the source of the information in the period from 2002 to 2016

From: Salmonella Typhimurium environmental reduction in a farrow-to-finish pig herd using a live attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine

November 2002 The earliest mention of diarrhoea, describing considerable amounts of grey, yellow and sometimes black diarrhoea Visit report of the veterinarian
September 2004 Confirmation of anti-Lawsonia intracellularis serum IgG in pigs over 50 kg of body weight and advises medication with Tylosin Visit report of the veterinarian
April 2005 Confirmation of Salmonella in faecal samples of gilts of 40–60 kg of body weight and advised treatment with Enrofloxacin (Baytril®) and colistin sulphate. The appearance of runts in pigs over 30 kg of body weight is mentioned as a problem. Visit report of the veterinarian
October 2009 High S/P-ratio values in the Salmonella ELISA, especially in heavy finishers > 80 kg BW (4 out of 7 pigs sampled had S/P-ratio values > 2, all 7 pigs were positive at cut-off 0.6) Laboratory DGZ Vlaanderen vzw
  Later reports mention different S/P-ratio values, sometimes high, sometimes low, in pigs of 40 kg body weight and upwards Laboratory DGZ Vlaanderen vzw
2012–2015 All most all reports mention Salmonella as a problem Visit reports of the veterinarian
October 2012 The Salmonella expert from the Animal Health Service Flanders visited the herd to provide advice. Different acids (based on formic acid or coated butyrate) were tried through feed and/or drinking water, however concentrations nor duration of treatment nor pig category were specified or recorded. DGZ Vlaanderen vzw
October 2012 A faecal sample from sows and gilts / finishers tested positive for Salmonella Typhimurium O5+ which was sensitive to all tested antimicrobials including colistin. DGZ Vlaanderen vzw, typing by CODA-CERVA
March 2013 Two heavy finishers (104 and 106 kg body weight respectively) were submitted for post-mortem examination and enteritis caused by Salmonella Typhimurium O5+ was confirmed DGZ Vlaanderen vzw, typing by CODA-CERVA
October 2013 Seven pigs died of which 4 were presumed to have died of salmonellosis. Colistin sulphate is used regularly to treat for diarrhoea. Visit report of the veterinarian
April 2014 The report mentions the options of vaccinating for Salmonella and the use of butyric acid in the feed. Visit report of the veterinarian
2014–2016 As soon as diarrhoea appeared, antimicrobials containing colistin sulphate (Colistine-mix 1.2 milj. I.U./g, 1 kg during 2015, dose 5 mg/kg BW via drinking water for 5–7 days and Promycine Pulvis 4800 IE/mg, 1 kg, dose 100,000 I.U. per kg BW for 3–5 days via the drinking water after 2015) were used to treat the pigs. AMCRA Belgium
May 2016 Salmonellosis was confirmed after typing of 4 isolates from diarrhoea samples as Salmonella Typhimurium O5+ which were sensitive to all tested antimicrobials including colistin. DGZ Vlaanderen vzw, typing by CODA-CERVA
October 2016 Necropsy of 3 non-vaccinated finishing pigs (80, 80 and 84 kg body weight), showing moderate congestion of the mesenteric lymph nodes, dilated jejunum with yellow-brown fluid content including some Ascaris suum worms, very fluid yellow-brown content of the large intestine, confirmed they died of salmonellosis caused by S. Typhimurium O5+ which was sensitive to all tested antimicrobials including colistin. DGZ Vlaanderen vzw, typing by CODA-CERVA