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Table 3 Bacteriological results by sampling date and year and sample type per animal category and per location. C1, C2, C3, C4: corridors in barns A – D respectively, AI: artificial insemination centre (see Fig. 1). Sample types: S/D/P: combined sock sample, dust wipe and pooled faecal sample from the same compartment, S/D: sock sample and dust wipe from the same compartment or corridor, S: sock sample, . or -: not done. Bacteriological results for combined samples per compartment or corridor are presented as xxx/xxx/xxx or xxx/xxx, results of separate compartments are separated by, (comma). *: significant decrease since previous high number of positive samples (Fisher exact test, P < 0.05), #: significant increase since previous low number of positive samples (Fisher exact test, P < 0.05), field = S. Typhimurium field strain, ST = undifferentiated S. Typhimurium., group C = Salmonella enterica serogroup C isolate, vac = Salmoporc® vaccine strain, neg = negative

From: Salmonella Typhimurium environmental reduction in a farrow-to-finish pig herd using a live attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine

   C1 C2 C3 C4 Farrowing AI and gestation Weaned piglets barn B Weaned piglets barn D Grow finishers barn C Grow finishers barn D Positive and Total Salm samples Remarks
Aug-16 location . 1 S/D 1 S/D . 1 S/D/P 1 S/D/P 1 S/D/P . 1 S/D/P, 2 S/D .   
  Salm result . neg/neg field/field . neg/field/neg neg/neg/neg neg/neg/neg . neg/neg/neg, 2 field/field . 7 / 20 1 G/F in barn C treated with colistin was ST-field positive
Sep-16 location . 1 S/D 1 S/D . 1 S/D/P 1 S/D/P 1 S/D/P . 1 S/D/P, 2 S/D .   
  Salm result   neg/neg field/field   vac/vac/field field/vac/neg vac/neg/neg   field/field/field, field/neg, field/group C   10 / 20 Weaned piglets were being treated with amoxycillin
Okt-16 location 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S/D/P 1 S/−/P 1 S/D/P . 1 S/D/P .   
  Salm result ST/ST neg/neg ST/ST ST/neg ST/ST/neg ST/./neg ST/ST/neg . ST/neg/ST . 12 / 19 Isolates were not differentiated between field and vaccine strain
Nov-16 location . 1 S/D 1 S/D . 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S/D . 5 S/D .   Stopped pooled faecal samples
  Salm result . neg/neg neg/neg . vac/vac neg/vac vac/neg . 3 neg/neg, 2 field/field . 4 / 20*  
Dec-16 location 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S/D . 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S/D . 3 S/D .   
  Salm result vac/neg vac/neg field/field . neg/neg vac/vac vac/vac . 2 vac/neg, field/field . 4 / 18  
Total 2016            37 / 97 (38%)  
Jan-17 location . 1 S/D 1 S/D . 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S/D . 5 S/D .   
  Salm result . neg/neg field/field . field/neg field/field vac/vac . neg/neg, field/neg, 2 field/field, neg/field . 11 / 20# 1 G/F non-vaccinated was field/field-pos. 1 G/F with old F had diarrhoea: field/field
Feb-17 location 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S/D . 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S/D . 4 S/D .   
  Salm result neg/vac vac/neg neg/neg . field/vac neg/vac vac/vac . 2 neg/neg, neg/vac, neg/field . 2 / 20*  
Apr-17 location . 1 S/D 1 S/D . 1 S/D 1 S/D 2 S/D . 4 S/D .   
  Salm result . vac/neg neg/field . neg/vac vac/vac vac/neg, vac/neg . 2 vac/neg, neg/neg, field/neg . 2 / 20 1 G/F in barn C had diarrhoea: field/neg
Mei-17 location . 1 S/D 1 S/D . 2 S 1 S/D 3 S 3 S 6 S .   
  Salm result . neg/neg neg/field . vac, vac neg/vac 3 vac 2 vac, 1 neg 5 neg, 1 vac . 1 / 20 Changed sampling scheme: no dust sample in compartments
Jun-17 location . 1 S 1 S/D   1 S 1 S 2 S 2 S 6 S 1 S   
  Salm result . vac neg/neg   vac vac vac, field 2 vac 4 vac, 2 neg neg 1 / 16  
Jul-17 location . 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S/D 2 S 1 S 3 S 2 S 4 S 2 S   
  Salm result . neg/neg neg/neg neg/neg vac, vac vac 3 vac neg, vac 3 neg, 1 vac neg, vac 0 / 20  
Aug-17 location . 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S 1 S 3 S 2 S 4 S 3 S   
  Salm result . neg/vac neg/field neg/neg neg vac 3 vac neg, vac 3 vac, 1 field neg, 2 vac 2 / 20  
Sep-17 location . 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S/D   1 S 3 S 2 S 5 S 2 S   
  Salm result . neg/neg neg/neg neg/neg   neg 3 vac vac, neg 3 neg, 1 vac, 1 field 2 neg 1 / 19  
Okt-17 location . 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S/D    4 S 2 S 5 S 2 S   
  Salm result . neg/neg field/neg neg/neg    3 vac, neg 2 vac 2 neg, 2 vac, 1 field vac, field 3 / 20 1 G/F in barn C had diarrhoea: field
Nov-17 location . 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S/D 2 S 1 S 2 S 3 S 5 S 1 S   
  Salm result . neg/neg field/neg field/field 2 neg field vac, field 2 field, neg 4 field, neg field 12 / 20# 3 G/F in barn C had diarrhoea and were treated with colistin, pos for field strain
Dec-17 location . 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S/D 2 S 2 S 2 S 2 S 5 S 1 S   
  Salm result . vac/neg neg/neg neg/field 2 vac 2 neg 2 vac 2 vac vac, 2 neg, 2 field neg 3 / 20*  
Total 2017            38 / 215 (17.7%)  
Jan-18 location . 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S/D 2 S 1 S 2 S 2 S 5 S 2 S   
  Salm result . neg/neg neg/field neg/field neg, vac vac 2 vac 2 vac 3 vac, 2 field 2 field 6 / 20 2 G/F in barn D had diarrhoea and were treated with colistin
Feb-18 location . 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S 1 S 3 S 2 S 5 S 2 S   
  Salm result . vac/vac neg/neg neg/neg vac neg 2 field, 1 vac vac, field field, vac, 3 neg 2 field 6 / 20  
Mrt-18 location . 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S 1 S 3 S 2 S 5 S 2   
  Salm result . vac/vac vac/neg vac/vac vac neg 3 vac neg, vac 3 neg, 2 vac neg, field 1 / 20 1 G/F in barn D with some diarrhoea, pos for field strain
Apr-18 location . 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S 1 S 3 S 2 S 5 S 2 S   
  Salm result . vac/vac neg/neg field/neg neg neg vac, 2 neg 2 neg 4 neg, 1 vac vac, field 2 / 20 1 G/F in barn D with some diarrhoea, pos for field strain
Jun-18 location . 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S 1 S 2 S 2 S 5 S 3 S   
  Salm result . neg/vac neg/neg neg/neg vac vac 2 neg 2 vac 3 vac, 2 neg field, vac, neg 1 / 20 1 G/F in barn D with diarrhoea in one pen, pos for field strain
Aug-18 location . 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S 1 S 2 S 3 S 5 S 2 S   
  Salm result . vac/vac neg/neg field/neg field neg 2 vac 3 neg 4 neg, 1 vac field, vac 3 / 20 1 G/F in barn C had some diarrhoea: neg, 1 G/F in barn D was also pos in jun-18
Okt-18 location . 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S 1 S 3 S 2 S 5 S 2 S   
  Salm result . neg/vac field/field neg/neg neg neg 2 vac, 1 neg neg, field 4 field, neg field, neg 8 / 20# 2 G/F in barn C some diarrhoea, both field strain pos
Dec-18 location . 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S 1 S 3 S 2 S 5 S 2 S   
  Salm result . neg/neg neg/neg field/neg neg field 3 neg 2 neg 1 vac, 4 field neg, field 7 / 20 2 G/F in barn C some diarrhoea, both field strain pos
Total 2018            34 / 160 (21.3%)  
Feb-19 location . 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S 1 S 3 S 2 S 5 S 2 S   
  Salm result . neg/neg field/neg neg/neg vac neg 3 vac 2 vac 4 vac, 1 field neg, field 3 / 20 1 G/F in barn C was also pos in dec-18
Apr-19 location . 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S 1 S 3 S 2 S 5 S 2 S   
  Salm result . vac/neg neg/neg neg/neg field neg 2 vac, 1 neg 2 neg 2 field, 3 neg 2 neg 3 / 20  
May-19 location . 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S 1 S 2 S 2 S 6 S 2 S   
  Salm result . neg/neg field/neg neg/neg neg neg 2 vac 2 vac 4 neg, 1 vac, 1 field 2 neg 2 / 20 1 G/F in barn C had some diarrhoea: pos for field strain
Jul-19 location . 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S 1 S 2 S 3 S 5 S 2 S   
  Salm result . neg/neg field/neg vac/field neg vac 2 vac 2 neg, 1 vac 5 neg 2 neg 2 / 20  
Sep-19 location . 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S 1 S 4 S 2 S 4 S 2 S   
  Salm result . neg/neg neg/neg neg/neg neg neg 4 vac 1 vac, 1 neg 2 neg, 2 vac 2 neg 0 / 20* 1 G/F in barn C has some diarrhoea: neg
Nov-19 location . 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S/D . 2 S 4 S 1 S 5 S 2 S   
  Salm result . neg/neg neg/neg vac/neg . vac, neg 4 vac vac 5 vac vac, neg 0 / 20  
Total 2019            10 / 120 (8.3%)  
Oct-20 location . 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S/D 1 S 1 S 3 S 2 S 6 S 1 S   
  Salm result . vac/vac neg/neg vac/neg vac vac 2 vac, 1 neg 2 neg 2 vac, 4 neg neg 0 / 20  
Total             119 / 612 (19.4%)