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Table 1 Average utilization of 169,013 gilts in 1540 gilts’ batches

From: Utilization and reproductive performance of gilts in large-scale pig farming system with different production levels in China: a descriptive study

   High-performing pig farms (n = 26) Intermediate-performing pig farms (n = 53) Low-performing pig farms (n = 26)
Mean ± SEM Mean ± SEM Mean ± SEM
Number Gilts’ batches 235 948 357
Source Self-breeding1 73.0% ± 8.2%ab 80.8% ± 4.3%a 54.6% ± 6.7%b
  Internal introduction2 23.8% ± ± 7.8% 13.2% ± 3.3% 27.4% ± 6.2%
  External introduction3 3.2% ± 1.9%a 6.0% ± 2.4%a 18.0% ± 6.2%b
Introduction Average introduction number of gilts 121 ± 6.94 83 ± 5.89 174 ± 16.21
  Average introduction age 202 ± 3.76a 237 ± 1.73b 224 ± 2.56c
Mortality Mortality of gilts4 1.8% ± 0.2%a 1.7% ± 0.2%a 6.6% ± 1.0%b
  Total mortality5 5.6% ± 0.5%a 15.4% ± 0.9%b 19.1% ± 1.4%c
Culling Culling rate of gilts6 9.4% ± 1.4%a 10.5% ± 0.8%a 14.9% ± 1.4%b
  Total culling rate7 25.9% ± 2.0%a 32.8% ± 1.1%b 40.4% ± 1.8%c
  1. 1Self-breeding: Gilts were bred and fed by pig farms themselves
  2. 2Internal introduction: Gilts were provided by other pig farms of the internal company
  3. 3External introduction: Gilts were provided by the pig farms of the external company
  4. 4Mortality of gilts = Deaths from introduction to pre-mating/Introduction number of gilts
  5. 5Total mortality: Mortality during the research stage, regardless of the production phase (pre-mating, mating, conception, farrowing or feeding) of gilts. Total mortality = Deaths during the research stage/Introduction number of gilts
  6. 6Culling rate of gilts = Number of culling gilts from introduction to pre-mating/Introduction number of gilts. The reasons for culling mainly included abnormal estrus, disease or physiological defects
  7. 7Total culling rate: Culling rate during the research stage, regardless of the production phase (pre-mating, mating, conception, farrowing or feeding) of gilts. Total culling rate = Number of culling gilts during the research stage/Introduction number of gilts
  8. a,b,cBars with different letters differ significantly (P < 0.05)