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Table 2 Average estrus information of 100,811 estrus out of 112,157 gilts in 1540 gilts’ batches

From: Utilization and reproductive performance of gilts in large-scale pig farming system with different production levels in China: a descriptive study

  High-performing pig farms (n = 26) Intermediate-performing pig farms (n = 53) Low-performing pig farms (n = 26)
Mean ± SEM Mean ± SEM Mean ± SEM
Number of gilts’ batches 235 948 357
Total number of estrus1 21,198 44,917 34,696
Proportion of first estrus2 62.4%a 92.7%b 91.7%b
Proportion of second estrus3 21.0%a 5.1%b 4.7%b
Proportion of third or more estrus4 16.6%a 2.2%b 4.6%b
Total estrus rate5 77.2% ± 2.2%a 78.1% ± 1.2%a 66.3% ± 2.1%b
Average times of estrus6 1.2 ± 0.05a 0.9 ± 0.01b 0.9 ± 0.03b
Average age of first estrus7 209 ± 5.79a 224 ± 3.18b 213 ± 5.32b
  1. 1Total number of estrus: The total number of gilts with estrus from introduction to pre-mating
  2. 2Proportion of first estrus: Average proportion of gilts with once estrus in all estrus gilts of each gilts’ batch
  3. 3Proportion of second estrus: Average proportion of gilts with twice estrus in all estrus gilts of each gilts’ batch
  4. 4Proportion of third or more estrus: Average proportion of gilts with three times or more estrus in all estrus gilts of each gilts’ batch
  5. 5Total estrus rate = Number of gilts in estrus/Total number of estrus
  6. 6Average times of estrus: Average estrus times of gilts before mating in each gilts’ batch
  7. 7Average age of first estrus: Average age of first estrus age before mating in each gilts’ batch
  8. a,b Bars with different letters differ significantly (P < 0.05)