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Table 1 Categorisation and description of recommended actions for interaction risk mitigation on surveyed farms

From: Characterization and management of interaction risks between livestock and wild ungulates on outdoor pig farms in Spain

General category Specific action Description Proposed as priority Proposed as alternative
Water access control Fence off the water point Install livestock-proof fences to prevent livestock access to a specific water point. Bump gates can be included in this fencing, facilitating livestock access if necessary 130 (1–18) 67 (1–13)
  Remove water point When the potential risk of interspecies interaction at the point is not offset by its utility or the efforts needed to improve it 72 (1–13) 11 (1–4)
  Fence off a water stream Install livestock-proof fences to prevent the access of livestock to flowing water (stream, creek, river), sometimes in one plot only or on one side of the stream 53 (1–9) 17 (1–3)
  Adapt the water point When it is not possible to install fences, usually at spring-type water points, avoid large quagmires by ensuring that the water course is channelled and can flow without stagnating with minor plumbing or masonry work 23 (1–6) 7 (1–3)
  Temporary fencing To deter animals from crossing boundaries, install electric fences, generally made of synthetic cord with metal interwoven through it, attached to a steel fence post with a plastic insulator. Portable modular iron fencing could also be used 8 (1–3) 106 (1–18)
  Cattle-operated bump gates Install cattle-operated bump gates with wildlife-proof fences 1 21 (1–18)
Waterer improvements Install or modify low waterers When more units are needed; it is recommended to provide them with features for selective-use, such as metal covers or cattle-proof tops 318 (1–33) 26 (1–9)
  Cleaning and disinfection Routine maintenance of waterers so that clean water is available for the animals. Waterers should be dried when there is no livestock on the plot to prevent wildlife species from using them 317 (1–31) 3 (1–2)
  Install or modify high waterers Raise waterers high enough to prevent them from being used by species other than cattle or place new units for this purpose. It is recommended to keep low waterers on the same plot dry 247 (1–31) 18 (1–6)
  Repair Whenever waterers leak or overflow and waterlog the base. Repair should also include cementing the base (at least 1 m all around) 27 (1–3) 1
  Replace water source When the water comes from a natural source, usually a (small) pond, replace by using the public municipal network, if available, or water obtained from a borehole 9 (1–3) 16 (1–9)
  Use disused units Make use of waterers that are available but not in use 5 (1–3) 1
Food storage and deployment Add or modify feeders Install new selective feeders for cattle, or raise them to at minimum height of 1 m to prevent access by other species 9 (0–2)  
  Food storage improvement Install or repair physical barriers to prevent livestock/wildlife access 8  
Livestock species management Pathogen diagnosis Check the health status of sympatric livestock and game species on the farm (depending on the epidemiological context) or those introduced from other farms of unknown health status 67  
  Spatial and temporal separation of livestock species The aim of this action is to interrupt the natural circulation of shared pathogens between susceptible sympatric domestic species both spatially, by using different plots, and temporally, by establishing a quarantine period in the plot between the exit of one species and the entrance of another 42  
  Improve rotational grazing Adapt grazing strategies to the environmental and epidemiological context, especially when different livestock species are present by stopping or increasing this type of handling 19  
  Remove species When the presence of a species on the farm and the farmer’s production objectives are out of balance 15 5
  Handle or remove animals for self-consumption Farmers do not usually handle these animals but allow them to have freedom of movement, and for feeding and drinking on the farm 9  
Grazing management No-grazing plot (temporary) In this case, the risk in certain areas is temporary, mainly during the summer season 54 (1–6) 17 (1–4)
  No-grazing plot (permanent) When the risk of interaction with wildlife remains high after some action has been applied at specific points (densely wooded forest plots) 24 (1–4) 6 (1–2)
  Check and repair internal fencing On some farms, the fences are old, broken or partially missing, resulting in poor livestock management either within or between farms, most often in the case of pigs and goats. In addition, it is common to have several openings in fences that can be used by wildlife (Fig. 4a) 23  
  Alternative grazing species If a known pathogen is circulating and other livestock species less susceptible to that pathogen are able to graze on a specific plot (e.g., Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and horses) 19 (1–5) 20 (1–4)
  Forest clearance Remove the shrub layer to deter the presence and maintenance of wildlife and encourage livestock grazing on the most densely vegetated plots of the farm 13 2
  Reduce grazing area for piglets Reduce the size of grazing plots for piglets during the growing period when there are potential risk points easily accessible to wildlife away from the main buildings 8  
  Install double fencing systems Install two livestock fences a few meters apart (1–5) to prevent direct contact between animals on adjacent plots (pigs of different ages or different species) 2 (0–2) 3 (0–3)
  Avoid communal pastures Prevent livestock grazing in communal pastures, mainly cattle 1  
Wildlife management Improve game management Increase hunting pressure on wild ungulates and stop practices (such as translocations) that increase population densities 45  
  Coordinate hunting plans Agree on a coordinated hunting plan with neighbouring properties to maintain lower wild ungulate densities in order to prevent pathogen maintenance and spread to livestock 44  
  Stop use of baits Stop artificial food supplementation for wildlife. Remove any type of wildlife feeder 23  
  Game fence Install a 2.5 m high wildlife-proof metal fence to segregate hunting and farming activities on the farm, usually when big game is an important economic activity. It is also recommended to establish a protective barrier for specific livestock plots or risk points, and between the farm and neighbouring big game estates (perimeter fence) 13 1
Offal disposal Improve carrion management Increase surveillance of dead livestock in the field, change the location of animal by-product containers or improve the management of biological waste generated after hunting events 20  
  1. Total number of individual priority or alternative actions and within-farm ranges (parenthesis) are shown