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Table 1 A summary of studies that reported IAV subtypes in backyard swine populations globally

From: A systematic review of influenza A virus prevalence and transmission dynamics in backyard swine populations globally

Continent Country Serological methods Antibodies detected Citations Molecular methods IAV subtypes identified Citations
Africa Benin None None [25] Real time RT-PCR None [25]
  Cote d’Ivoire ELISA, HI None [25] Real time RT-PCR None [25]
  Cameroon ELISA, HI A(H1N1)pdm09 virus clade 1A.3.3.2 [26] Real time RT-PCR, Sanger sequencing A(H1N1)pdm09 virus clade 1A.3.3.2 [26]
  Kenya ELISA, HI IAV, H1N1, H3N2 [27, 28] Real time RT-PCR, virus isolation A(H1N1)pdm09 virus clade 1A.3.3.2 [27]
  Nigeria ELISA, HI A(H1N1)pdm09 virus clade 1A.3.3.2, H5N1 [12] Reverse transcription-PCR, real time RT-PCR, Sanger sequencing H5N1 [12]
  Uganda ELISA IAV [29] None None  
Asia Bangladesh ELISA IAV [30] None None  
  Bhutan ELISA, HI A(H1N1)pdm09 virus clade 1A.3.3.2, swine H1N1 clade 1C.1 [31] None None  
  Cambodia None None   Real time RT-PCR, Sanger sequencing H3N2 [32]
  China HI, NI H1N1, H3N2 [23, 33] Real time RT-PCR, virus isolation None [23]
  India ELISA, HI H1N1, A(H1N1)pdm09 virus clade 1A.3.3.2 [34] Virus isolation None [34]
  Indonesia HI, MN H5N1 [35, 36] Virus isolation, reverse transcription-PCR, Sanger sequencing H5N1 [35, 36]
  Nepal ELISA IAV [37] None None  
  Thailand ELISA None [38] None None  
  Viet Nam ELISA IAV [39] None None  
Europe France ELISA, HI H5N8 [40] None None  
North America Costa Rica None None   Real time RT-PCR, virus isolation, Sanger sequencing A(H1N1)pdm09 virus clade 1A.3.3.2 [24]
  Dominican Republic HI H1N1, H3N2 [22] None None  
  Guatemala ELISA, HI A(H1N1)pdm09 virus clade 1A.3.3.2, H3N2 [19] Real time RT-PCR, virus isolation, Sanger sequencing A(H1N1)pdm09 virus clade 1A.3.3.2, H3N2 [19]
  Haiti ELISA H1N1, H3N2 [41] None None  
  Mexico HI Human H1N1, Swine H1N1, Swine H3N2, A(H1N1)pdm09 virus clade 1A.3.3.2 [42] Real time RT-PCR, MiSeq None [43]
  Trinidad & Tobago ELISA, HI A(H1N1)pdm09 virus clade 1A.3.3.2, H3N2 [45] None None  
  USA HI Swine H1N1 [18] Real time RT-PCR, virus isolation, Sanger sequencing A(H1N1)pdm09 virus clade 1A.3.3.2 [21]
South America Brazil ELISA, HI H1N2, H3N2, A(H1N1)pdm09 virus clade 1A.3.3.2 [46] None None  
  Chile ELISA IAV [47, 49] Real time RT-PCR, virus isolation, Sanger sequencing H1N2 [20, 48, 49]
  Peru HI A(H1N1)pdm09 virus clade 1A.3.3.2 [50] Reverse transcription-PCR, Sanger sequencing A(H1N1)pdm09 virus clade 1A.3.3.2 [50]