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Table 5 Effects of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on hepatic free amino acid profile in finishing pigs (mg/kg dry liver)

From: Guanidine acetic acid supplementation altered plasma and tissue free amino acid profiles in finishing pigs

Items GAA, mg/kg SEM P-value
0 500 1000 1500 ANOVA Linear Quadratic
EAA
Threonine 2.43 2.17 2.47 2.21 0.15 0.427 0.603 0.990
Valine 3.06 2.71 3.02 2.72 0.16 0.301 0.357 0.903
Isoleucine 1.05 0.93 1.13 1.02 0.07 0.323 0.701 0.928
Leucine 7.24 6.17 7.29 6.40 0.41 0.169 0.468 0.835
Phenylalanine 2.88 2.40 2.93 2.63 0.18 0.163 0.779 0.626
Tryptophan 3.31 3.50 3.38 3.65 0.71 0.987 0.775 0.955
Lysine 3.27 2.77 3.42 3.03 0.24 0.309 0.946 0.831
Histidine 2.36 2.04 2.20 2.13 0.17 0.596 0.489 0.441
Arginine 0.67 0.51 0.78 0.66 0.07 0.146 0.502 0.840
NEAA
Serine 3.25 3.05 3.88 2.91 0.38 0.327 0.908 0.330
Glycine 9.93 10.02 10.15 8.81 0.46 0.183 0.133 0.140
Alanine 10.24 8.48 8.59 8.81 1.63 0.871 0.586 0.564
Glutamate 12.82 10.00 12.24 9.99 1.28 0.328 0.311 0.834
Glutamine 3.12 2.68 2.70 2.53 0.57 0.900 0.503 0.818
aspartic acid 3.00 2.12 3.37 2.49 0.41 0.227 0.895 0.991
Asparagine 1.26 1.23 1.32 1.29 0.09 0.925 0.688 0.950
Cystine 0.07 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.01 0.673 0.743 0.494
Tyrosine 2.41 1.98 2.41 2.18 0.17 0.306 0.756 0.611
Proline 6.39 6.30 6.35 7.01 0.80 0.939 0.644 0.687
Non-protein amino acids and derivatives/metabolites of amino acids
Ornithine 1.81 1.72 1.93 2.04 0.16 0.614 0.273 0.577
Taurine 23.79 25.21 24.74 22.87 2.19 0.883 0.749 0.469
Citrulline 0.08 0.08 0.09 0.08 0.01 0.902 0.873 0.590
β-alanine 0.62 0.52 0.55 0.69 0.08 0.472 0.504 0.159
Cystathionine 3.39 2.83 3.36 3.08 0.23 0.300 0.699 0.554
α-aminoadipic acid 2.36 2.62 2.72 2.26 0.47 0.892 0.934 0.459
α-amino-n-butyric acid 1.11 0.78 1.13 1.10 0.13 0.221 0.595 0.287
β-aminoisobutyric acid 0.88 0.71 0.86 0.75 0.09 0.437 0.576 0.724
γ-amino-n-butyric acid 0.05c 0.30b 0.34b 0.41a 0.01  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001
Anserine 1.93 1.26 2.03 1.50 0.20 0.069 0.668 0.789
Carnosine 1.68a 1.29ab 0.90b 1.78a 0.19 0.014 0.936 0.004
Ethanolamine 0.84 0.89 0.86 0.93 0.18 0.987 0.775 0.955
Urea 3.89 5.79 3.94 4.44 0.81 0.309 0.996 0.178
Ammonia 1.63 1.54 1.55 1.57 0.06 0.753 0.549 0.394
∑EAA 26.26 23.19 26.27 24.45 1.47 0.408 0.727 0.679
∑NEAA 86.53 80.57 86.59 79.20 4.46 0.566 0.454 0.880
TAA 112.75 103.69 112.73 103.50 5.85 0.530 0.498 0.989
  1. SEM standard error of the mean, EAA essential amino acids, NEAA nonessential amino acids, TAA total amino acids
  2. Dietary treatments were: basal diet + 0, 500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg GAA, respectively. n = 6
  3. a, b, c Mean within rows with different letters differ significantly (P < 0.05)
  4. Bold indicates P < 0.05