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Table 6 Effects of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on renal free amino acid profile in finishing pigs (mg/kg dry kidney)

From: Guanidine acetic acid supplementation altered plasma and tissue free amino acid profiles in finishing pigs

Items GAA, mg/kg SEM P-value
0 500 1000 1500 ANOVA Linear Quadratic
EAA
Methionine 0.13 0.17 0.16 0.13 0.02 0.278 0.700 0.063
Threonine 7.15 8.36 8.25 7.54 0.61 0.504 0.717 0.151
Valine 8.36 9.73 9.19 8.68 0.74 0.639 0.909 0.249
Isoleucine 4.21 4.60 4.54 3.94 0.36 0.594 0.621 0.208
Leucine 16.29 17.78 17.25 15.63 1.31 0.705 0.692 0.280
Phenylalanine 7.61 8.79 8.30 7.03 0.65 0.317 0.479 0.091
Tryptophan 11.57 12.18 11.68 11.83 1.10 0.983 0.957 0.845
Lysine 9.24 11.16 10.61 9.09 0.93 0.364 0.820 0.089
Histidine 3.20 3.98 3.91 3.87 0.30 0.332 0.203 0.229
Arginine 6.27 7.89 7.04 5.74 0.64 0.158 0.430 0.043
NEAA
Serine 10.53 12.28 12.22 10.54 1.04 0.503 0.993 0.135
Glycine 24.22 30.83 32.64 26.40 2.37 0.080 0.446 0.015
Alanine 17.67 19.34 19.89 17.81 1.35 0.646 0.883 0.219
Glutamate 37.40b 49.99a 47.15ab 37.96b 2.59 0.010 0.930 0.001
Glutamine 0.51 0.81 0.77 0.52 0.13 0.270 0.997 0.055
Aspartic acid 10.46 11.91 11.50 10.82 0.91 0.709 0.879 0.279
Asparagine 3.78 4.59 5.04 4.64 0.42 0.263 0.139 0.188
Cystine 3.21b 9.00a 6.69ab 3.02b 1.35 0.017 0.646 0.003
Tyrosine 6.96 8.17 7.51 6.57 0.60 0.329 0.526 0.103
Proline 19.25a 22.25a 18.07a 8.68b 1.96 0.002 0.001 0.009
Non-protein amino acids and derivatives/metabolites of amino acids
Ornithine 1.34 1.77 1.85 1.68 0.16 0.173 0.150 0.087
Taurine 31.65 34.05 32.50 35.24 2.04 0.673 0.364 0.941
Citrulline 1.02 1.01 1.04 1.00 0.03 0.900 0.827 0.622
β-alanine 1.69 1.71 1.49 1.54 0.10 0.550 0.251 0.895
Hydroxyproline 1.18 1.49 1.10 1.35 0.18 0.543 0.869 0.946
Cystathionine 7.79 8.86 8.39 7.50 0.67 0.517 0.670 0.170
α-aminoadipic acid 5.44 3.75 4.81 8.62 1.15 0.089 0.089 0.051
γ-amino-n-butyric acid 0.36b 0.46ab 0.45ab 0.53a 0.04 0.039 0.008 0.793
Urea 26.94 32.75 19.66 27.93 6.21 0.561 0.729 0.851
Ammonia 1.84a 1.93a 1.58ab 0.96b 0.15 0.001 0.000 0.036
∑EAA 74.01 84.58 80.92 73.42 6.04 0.558 0.852 0.177
∑NEAA 184.98 222.48 213.45 184.42 12.15 0.131 0.861 0.023
TAA 258.13 306.04 293.71 256.84 18.05 0.222 0.856 0.045
  1. SEM standard error of the mean, EAA essential amino acids, NEAA nonessential amino acids, TAA total amino acids
  2. Dietary treatments were: basal diet + 0, 500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg GAA, respectively. n = 6
  3. a, bMean within rows with different letters differ significantly (P < 0.05)
  4. Bold indicates P < 0.05