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Table 8 Effects of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on cardiac free amino acid profile in finishing pigs (mg/kg dry heart)

From: Guanidine acetic acid supplementation altered plasma and tissue free amino acid profiles in finishing pigs

Items GAA, mg/kg SEM P -value
0 500 1000 1500 ANOVA Linear Quadratic
EAA
Threonine 0.85 1.02 1.00 0.67 0.15 0.436 0.455 0.150
Valine 0.74 0.84 0.91 0.76 0.08 0.412 0.774 0.121
Isoleucine 0.31 0.31 0.33 0.26 0.02 0.083 0.137 0.058
Leucine 1.46 1.42 1.69 1.57 0.10 0.248 0.189 0.722
Phenylalanine 0.74 0.66 0.81 0.74 0.04 0.113 0.447 0.783
Tryptophan 0.11 0.09 0.11 0.12 0.02 0.625 0.406 0.354
Lysine 1.39 1.41 1.65 1.27 0.10 0.112 0.776 0.073
Histidine 1.35 1.19 1.53 1.22 0.10 0.105 0.906 0.474
Arginine 1.20 1.13 1.27 1.05 0.06 0.129 0.313 0.242
NEAA
Serine 0.87b 1.16ab 1.34a 0.97ab 0.11 0.039 0.342 0.009
Glycine 1.84ab 1.99ab 2.23a 1.53b 0.14 0.020 0.291 0.008
Alanine 16.62 16.99 18.79 16.55 0.85 0.294 0.706 0.168
Glutamate 4.88 5.08 5.66 4.95 0.55 0.763 0.758 0.433
Glutamine 61.14 62.10 59.66 48.53 3.90 0.097 0.038 0.152
aspartic acid 0.53 0.39 0.43 0.32 0.11 0.659 0.279 0.881
Asparagine 0.38 0.43 0.57 0.44 0.05 0.162 0.255 0.125
Tyrosine 0.71 0.68 0.68 0.64 0.04 0.561 0.185 0.889
Proline 0.90 1.07 0.97 1.03 0.10 0.659 0.547 0.584
Non-protein amino acids and derivatives/ metabolites of amino acids
Ornithine 0.13b 0.13b 0.20a 0.13b 0.02 0.025 0.347 0.054
Taurine 47.93 42.31 54.58 43.34 3.89 0.167 0.935 0.500
Citrulline 0.71 0.90 1.21 0.97 0.24 0.598 0.338 0.440
Cystathionine 1.00 1.00 1.16 1.06 0.07 0.429 0.344 0.482
α-aminoadipic acid 0.45 0.33 0.41 0.44 0.06 0.580 0.866 0.246
β-aminoisobutyric acid 0.42ab 0.39b 0.57a 0.38b 0.04 0.011 0.885 0.046
Carnosine 1.49 0.97 0.86 1.32 0.19 0.228 0.577 0.050
Ethanolamine 0.40 0.32 0.42 0.44 0.05 0.578 0.480 0.356
Urea 3.29 4.47 2.88 3.41 0.52 0.237 0.620 0.564
Ammonia 2.09b 2.13b 2.42ab 2.89a 0.12 0.001  < 0.001 0.093
∑EAA 8.10ab 8.04ab 9.19a 7.61b 0.38 0.046 0.851 0.058
∑NEAA 138.43ab 134.87ab 147.57a 120.79b 4.71 0.032 0.142 0.062
TAA 146.53ab 142.91ab 156.76a 128.40b 5.71 0.029 0.152 0.056
  1. SEM standard error of the mean, EAA essential amino acids, NEAA nonessential amino acids, TAA total amino acids
  2. Dietary treatments were: basal diet + 0, 500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg GAA, respectively. n = 6
  3. a, bMean within rows with different letters differ significantly (P < 0.05)
  4. Bold indicates P < 0.05