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Table 2 Univariate analysis of potential risk factors for T. gondii infection in pigs from 69 Dutch finishing pig farms

From: Potential risk factors for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in finishing pigs on conventional farms in the Netherlands

Risk factor Categories No. of Farms Blood samples P-value
No. positive No. tested Avg. % pos.*
Type of farm Closed 14 42 1180 6.1% 0.008
  Open 55 217 3954 7.0%  
Presence of dogs Absent 22 83 1211 9.6% 0.002
  Present 47 176 3923 5.5%  
Presence of poultry Absent 59 170 4276 5.1%  < 0.0001
  Present 10 89 858 16.7%  
Presence of ruminants Absent 41 145 3463 5.2%  < 0.0001
  Present 28 114 1671 9.1%  
Well-defined clean/dirty zones No 52 217 3802 7.1% 0.000
  Yes 17 42 1332 5.9%  
Boots only used inside stables No 43 207 3578 8.6% 0.000
  Yes 26 52 1556 3.9%  
Shower and farm clothing No 61 235 3947 7.2%  < 0.0001
  Yes 8 24 1187 4.0%  
Purchase of breeding giltsa No 58 228 4376 6.8% 0.195
  Yes 11 31 758 6.9%  
Cleaning every round of pigs No 21 115 1472 6.3%  < 0.0001
  Yes 47 136 3244 7.1%  
Presence of cats No 19 47 1530 5.1%  < 0.0001
  Yes, no stable access, no kittens spotted 29 82 2498 4.1%  
  Yes, no stable access, kittens spotted 11 82 697 9.9%  
  Yes, with stable access, no kittens spotted 3 7 99 5.7%  
  Yes, with stable access, kittens spotted 6 41 304 21.3%  
Pig feed accessible for cats No 46 83 2972 2.7%  
  Yes 23 176 2162 15.0%  
Bedding pigs accessible for catsa No 65 253 5008 6.8% 0.882
  Yes 4 6 126 6.4%  
Feed heated No 37 195 3459 9.0% 0.004
  Yes 32 64 1675 4.2%  
Compost, soil, peatb No 68 249 5038 6.7% 0.032
  Yes 1 10 96 10.4%  
Whey (goat and/or cow) No 51 134 3012 5.1% 0.021
  Yes 18 125 2122 11.5%  
Whey (cow)a No 59 220 4226 6.3% 0.246
  Yes 10 39 908 9.8%  
Whey (goat) No 65 201 4887 4.9%  < 0.0001
  Yes 4 58 247 37.6%  
Wet/Liquid feedc No 35 75 1702 4.7% 0.137
  Yes 34 184 3432 8.9%  
Roughagec,d No 61 252 4352 7.3%  < 0.0001
  Yes 6 6 478 4.3%  
Corncob mixc,d No 52 132 3001 5.2% 0.000
  Yes 15 126 1829 13.3%  
Use of strawd No 54 227 4054 7.5% 0.059
  Yes 13 31 776 5.0%  
Garden/kitchen waste No 66 244 5030 6.6% 0.000
  Yes 3 15 104 11.5%  
Pig drinking water Tapwater 32 96 1555 7.0% 0.017
  Well 37 163 3579 6.6%  
Shielding of flies No 49 148 3349 6.1% 0.006
  Yes 20 111 1785 8.5%  
Shielding of birds No 8 26 316 9.1% 0.014
  Yes 61 233 4818 6.5%  
Professional rodent controla No 41 145 2652 7.2% 0.152
  Yes 28 114 2482 6.2%  
Mode of rodent control No or trap-only control 4 12 262 4.0% 0.051
  Poisson-control 47 175 3808 6.4%  
  Poisson and trap-control 18 72 1064 8.5%  
Stable accessible for rodentsa No 31 113 2188 4.6% 0.736
  Yes 38 146 2946 8.6%  
Pig feed accessible for rodentsc No 36 51 1877 2.3%  < 0.0001
  Yes 33 208 3257 11.7%  
Bedding pigs accessible for rodents No 64 253 4767 6.9% 0.004
  Yes 5 6 367 5.1%  
  1. *Average of the % positive samples at farm level
  2. Cattle, sheep and/or goats
  3. aRisk factors not included in the multivariable analysis due to P > 0.15 in univariable analysis
  4. bRisk factors not included in the multivariable analysis due to low frequency counts
  5. cRisk factors not included in the multivariable analysis due to collinearity issues
  6. dRisk factors not included in the multivariable analysis due to missing values