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Table 3 Multivariable analysis of potential risk factors for T. gondii infection in finishing pigs from 69 Dutch finishing pig farms using backward elimination and inclusion criterion of P ≤ 0.05

From: Potential risk factors for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in finishing pigs on conventional farms in the Netherlands

Risk factor No. of Farms Blood samples OR 95% CI P-value
Variables   No. positive No. tested Avg. % pos.*    
Type of farm
Closed 14 42 1180 6.1% 1.00   0.0488
Open 55 217 3954 7.2% 0.63 0.40–1.00  
Dogs
Absent 22 83 1211 9.6% 1.00   0.0161
Present 47 176 3923 5.7% 0.60 0.40–0.91  
Ruminants (cattle, sheep and/or goat)
Absent 41 145 3463 5.4% 1.00   0.0071
Present 28 114 1671 9.1% 1.67 1.15–2.42  
Boots only used inside stables  
No 43 207 3578 8.7% 1.00   0.0068
Yes 26 52 1556 4.0% 1.91 1.20–3.04  
Shower and farm clothing
No 61 235 3947 7.3% 1.00   0.0106
Yes 8 24 1187 4.3% 0.37 0.17–0.79  
Mode of rodent control
No or only with traps 4 12 262 4.0% 1.00   0.0056
Poison 47 175 3808 6.5% 3.37 1.23–9.23  
Poison and traps 18 72 1064 14.1% 5.57 1.90–16.3  
Bedding pigs accessible for rodents
No 64 253 4767 7.1% 1.00   0.0002
Yes 5 6 367 5.1% 0.17 0.07–0.44  
Presence of cats
Absent 19 47 1530 5.1% 1.00    < 0.0001
Present, no kittens, no stable access 29 82 2498 4.2% 1.90 1.11–3.27  
Present, kittens, cats not in stable 11 82 697 9.9% 11.80 6.23–22.5  
Present, no kittens, stable accessible 3 7 99 5.7% 2.87 0.67–12.3  
Present, kittens, stable accessible 6 41 304 21.3% 4.20 2.04–8.55  
Drinking water for pigs
Tapwater 32 96 1555 7.3% 1.00   0.0095
Well 37 163 3579 6.7% 0.60 0.40–0.88  
Feed heated
No 37 195 3459 9.2% 1.00   0.0129
Yes 32 64 1675 4.3% 0.42 0.21–0.83  
Whey (goat)
No 65 201 4887 5.0% 1.00    < 0.0001
Yes 4 58 247 37.6% 11.30 7.12–18.0  
Shielding of birds
No 8 26 316 9.1% 1.00   0.0035
Yes 61 233 4818 6.7% 0.18 0.06–0.57  
  1. *Average of the % positive samples at farm level