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Table 1 Results of univariable and multivariable general linear regression models

From: Evaluation of the relationship between the biosecurity status, production parameters, herd characteristics and antimicrobial usage in farrow-to-finish pig production in four EU countries

    Country corrected univariable Country corrected multivariable
Outcome variable Risk factor N β-coefficient p-value Adjusted R2 β-coefficient p-value
LOG TI Breeding TI 200 227 <0.01 <0.01 0.148 <0.01 0.01
  Internal biosecurity 227 0.22 0.36 0.073   
  External biosecurity 227 0.51 0.08 0.083   
  Years experience 221 −0.07 0.81 0.071   
  Pathogens vaccinated 227 2.35 0.14 0.079   
  # sows 227 0.01 0.33 0.074   
  # employees 221 0.43 0.78 0.066   
  Gender 214   0.60 0.071   
   Male 137 3.14 0.60    
   Female 77 Ref. Ref.    
  Education 210   0.11 0.082   
   Lower 84 −15.47 0.05    
   Higher 84 −15.77 0.06    
   University 42 Ref. Ref.    
  Farrowing rhythm (cat) 219   0.76 0.060   
   >5 18 −0.81 0.95    
   5 20 2.76 0.82    
   4 48 −1.34 0.89    
   3 80 4.33 0.62    
   2 21 14.94 0.20    
   1 32 Ref. Ref.    
LOG TI 200 TI Breeding 227 <0.01 <0.01 0.332 <0.01 <0.01
  Internal biosecurity 227 −0.01 0.11 0.325   
  External biosecurity 227 −0.02 0.01 0.353 −0.03 <0.01
  Weaning age 216 −0.05 0.05 0.335 −0.05 0.06
  Years experience 221 <0.01 0.28 0.324   
  Pathogens vaccinated 227 0.18 <0.01 0.355 0.14 <0.01
  # sows 227 <0.01 0.01 0.346   
  # employees 221 0.05 0.32 0.315   
  Gender 214   0.51 0.313   
   Male 137 0.11 0.51    
   Female 77 Ref. Ref.    
  Education 210   0.39 0.331   
   Lower 84 0.07 0.77    
   Higher 84 0.28 0.24    
   University 42 Ref. Ref.    
  Zinc oxide 205   0.29 0.310   
   Yes 39 0.25 0.29    
   No 166 Ref. Ref.    
  Anti-inflammatory weaners 227   0.05 0.338   
   Yes 71 0.37 0.05    
   No 156 Ref. Ref.    
  Anti-coccidial 214   0.10 0.313   
   Yes 90 0.28 0.10    
   No 124 Ref. Ref.    
  Farrowing rhythm 219   <0.01 0.360   <0.01
   >5 18 −0.78 0.05   −0.88 0.02
   5 20 −1.15 <0.01   −1.10 <0.01
   4 48 −0.51 0.07   −0.44 0.11
   3 80 −0.38 0.12   −0.21 0.42
   2 21 0.10 0.75   −0.06 0.85
   1 32 Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.
Number of weaned piglets per sow per year (WSY) Years experience 217 −0.02 0.27 0.354   
External biosecurity 223 0.05 <0.01 0.362   
Internal biosecurity 223 0.03 0.06 0.349   
  Weaning age 212 −0.17 <0.01 0.367 −0.19 <0.01
  Pathogens vaccinated 223 0.18 0.06 0.349   
  Mortality until weaning 222 −0.18 <0.01 0.423 −0.21 <0.01
  #sows 223 <0.01 <0.01 0.391   
  #employees 217 0.22 0.02 0.359   
  TI Breeding 223 0.01 <0.01 0.362 0.01 0.06
  TI 200 223 <0.01 0.71 0.339   
  Anti-inflammatory sucklers 223      
   Yes 122 0.43 0.39 0.340   
   No 105 Ref. Ref.    
  Anti-inflammatory weaners 223      
   Yes 71 0.57 0.13 0.345   
   No 156 Ref. Ref.    
  Anti-inflammatory sows 215      
   Yes 217 1.18 0.49 0.343   
   No 2 Ref. Ref.    
  Anti-coccidial 211      
   Yes 90 0.08 0.82 0.337   
   No 124 Ref. Ref.    
  Zinc oxide 201      
   Yes 39 0.86 0.06 0.363   
   No 166 Ref. Ref.    
  Country * Weaning age       0.02
  Belgium * Weaning age      −0.20 0.18
  France * Weaning age      0.21 0.04
  Germany * Weaning age      0.15 0.18
  Sweden * Weaning age      Ref. Ref.
  1. LOG log transformation. Light gray values in the univariable model indicate that these factors were not significant (p < 0.20) in the univariable model. In the multivariable model p-values which are significant with p < 0.05 are black and bold, 0.05 < p < 0.10 are black and p > 0.10 are light gray. Significant interactions are listed where applicable. All models were corrected for the country effect by adding country in the model as a fixed variable. Only relevant variables are listed