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Table 1 Criteria for the histopathological characterisation of shoulder ulcers (modification of Jensen 2009)

From: Scoring shoulder ulcers in breeding sows – is a distinction between substantial and insubstantial animal welfare-related lesions possible on clinical examination?

Tissue 0 1 2 3 4 5a
Epidermis Intact Necrotic or missing Necrotic or missing Necrotic or missing Necrotic or missing Often absent
Dermis Necrosis limited to the superficial dermis Necrosis of the major part, residues of hair follicles and glandular structures Necrotic or missing Granulation tissue, fibroplasia
Subcutis No lesions No necrosis Necrotic, excessive granulation tissue, microabscesses
Bone Slight proliferation of cambium possible Reactive cambium and thickened, periosteal bone formation Demarcated by excessive granulation tissue, “unprotected”b Often thickened, sometimes granulation tissue
Musclec No lesion Suprascapular muscles with fibrosis Severely atrophied muscles No lesion
  1. aHealed ulcer
  2. bOverlying tissue is missing
  3. cParts of surrounding shoulder girdle muscles (M. trapezius or M. deltoideus)