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Table 4 Combined inactivation steps in the manufacturing process of SDP. Inactivation expressed as colony-forming unit (cfu) per g in case of bacteria and Log10 TCID50 for viruses

From: Biosafety steps in the manufacturing process of spray-dried plasma: a review with emphasis on the use of ultraviolet irradiation as a redundant biosafety procedure

Bacteria /Virus (enveloped or non-enveloped) Spray-Drying Reference UV-C Reference Storage at 20 °C for 14 d Reference Combined Theoretical Inactivation
E. coli K88 7.3 [30] 4.3 [30]    11.6
E. coli K99 7.7 [30] 4 [30]    11.7
Salmonella typhimurium 5.4 [29] 3.6 [72] > 4.2 [29] > 13.2
Salmonella choleraesuis 5.3 [29] 5.6 [72] > 4.8 [29] > 15.7
PRV (enveloped) > 5.3 [31] 4.5 [74]    > 9.8
PRRSV (enveloped) > 4.0 [31] > 4.0 [74] > 4.0 [47] > 12.0
PEDV (enveloped) > 5.2 [34] > 4.1 [74] > 3.5 [34] > 12.8
ASFV (enveloped) ~ 4.0 [35] ~ 4.0 [75]    ~ 8.0
SVDV (non-enveloped) > 6.0 [32] 2.6 [74]    > 8.6
  1. Blank cell means that the inactivation associated with that step has not been determined