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Table 5 Differential diagnosis of the main agents of post-weaning diarrhoea (modified from Martelli et al. 2013) [28]

From: Swine enteric colibacillosis: diagnosis, therapy and antimicrobial resistance

Disease/Etiological Agent Age Diarrhoea Gross Lesions Lethality Laboratory diagnostic methods
Colibacillosis
E.coli (ETEC, EPEC)
Most commonly post-weaning until 45–50 days Yellowish, grey or slightly pink
alkaline pH
Distension, congestion of small intestine. Gastritis and stomach full of feed Can reach 25% Culture/isolation.
Typing of isolates usually by PCR.
Histopathology
Swine dysentery
Brachyspira hyodysenteriae
Frequent in the growing-fattening periods Muco-haemorrhagic Muco-haemorrhagic and fibrino-necrotic typhlocolitis Variable, usually low Culture/isolation. Typing by PCR.
Histopathology
Salmonellosis
(Salmonella typhimurium)
Mostly in the growing-fattening periods Yellowish, greenish, muco-haemorrhagic Necrotic lesions yellowish membrane (small and large intestine); Prominent Payer patches Low Culture/isolation
PED and TGE
Coronavirus PEDV
TGEV
All Watery yellow/white/grey
Watery yellow, white, grey, greenish; acid pH
Empty stomach.
Small intestine was thinned and congested
Can be high; less severe than in neonates PCR
Histopathology
Viral isolation
Rotaviral enteritis
Rotavirus
From 1 to 5 weeks Watery, sometime pasty. Acid pH Small intestine was thinned. Low,
<20%
PCR
Histopathology
Viral isolation
Proliferative enteropathy
Lawsonia intracellularis
Post-weaning A: haemorrhagic
C: greenish
Ileitis Low PCR
Histopathology
  1. A acute, C chronic